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Standards are structured rules for the synthesis and reconstruction of technical systems. Once understood and with some experience in their implementation, Standards can help combat many complex problems that regularly occur throughout industry with some common constraints.

Standards provide two functions:

  1. Standards help to improve an existing system or synthesize a new one.
  2. Standards are the most effective method for providing a graphical model of a problem. This is called Substance-Field (or Su-Field) modeling. The actual contradiction — occurs. In this area, two substances (elements) and a field (energy) must be present. Analysis of the Su-Field model helps determine changes necessary within the technical system in order to improve it.


Constraint - In order to improve a system, a certain substance should be introduced; however, its introduction is prohibited by conditions specific to the problem. Stirrer-molten steel


A factory produces a new type of steel. Different additives are placed into the mix and stirred into the molten steel. In order to prevent the blades of the mixer from melting away during the mixing process, the blades  must have a protective coating. However, this coating may pollute the mixture of molten steel. What can be done?


Elements of the existing System:                            SU-Field

Molten steel

Mixing container

Additive Intake

Blades that stir molten metal


S-Field modeling of a technical system is performed in the Operating Zone, the area where the core of the problem. The diagram above shows a graphical model of the molten steel mixer problem. S1 is the blade, S2 is the molten steel, and F2 is the thermal energy of the steel that melts blade S1. The wavy arrow represents a harmful interaction between the hot molten steel (S2) and the blade (S1). To protect the blade, a third substance, S3, must be introduced. In this case, S3 is a modification of S2. By providing cold (F3) to blade S1, a crust from the molten material will develop on the blade’s surface and protect it from melting.


Altshuller offered 76 Standards divided into five classes:

Class #1: Build or destroy an S-Field.

Class #2: Develop an S-Field.

Class #3: Transition from the base system to a supersystem or to the micro-level.

Class #4: Measure or detect anything within a technical system.

Class #5: Describes how to introduce substances or fields into the technical system.