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ARIZ is the central analytical tool of TRIZ. It provides specific sequential steps for developing a solution for complex problems. The first version of ARIZ was developed in 1968 and many modifications during the next 20 years received. Over the years, it has become a precise tool for solving a wide variety of technical problems. The most used version, ARIZ- 85C, was published in 1985 and contains nine steps. ARIZ is a very power tool that uses all of the tools and key concepts of TRIZ. Each step includes many sub-steps. Below is a very brief description (outline) of the nine steps.

Step #1.

Analysis of the problem.

Begin by making the transition from vaguely defined statements of the problem to a simply stated (without jargon or terminology specific to any industry) mini-problem.


“A technical system consisting of elements A, B, and C has technical contradiction TC (state the contradiction). It is necessary to provide required function F (state the function) while incurring

minimal changes to the system.” It is not important that such a result is achievable; however, it is important to state that the system should stay the same — or become even simpler. Step #1 also provides for an analysis of conflicting situations; i.e., technical contradictions. Here a decision has to be made as to which contradiction should be considered for further resolution. Once decided, a model of the problem is formulated.

Step #2.

Analysis of the problem’s model.

A simplified diagram modeling the conflict in the Operating Zone is drawn. (The Operating Zone is a

specified narrow area of the conflict). Then an assessment of all available resources is made.

Step #3.

Formulation of the Ideal Final Result (IFR).

Usually, the statement of the IFR reveals contradictory requirements to the critical component of the system in the Operating Zone. This is the Physical Contradiction. As a result of these first three steps, a vague problem is transformed into a specific physical problem — the Physical Contradiction.

In many cases the problem is solved by the end of Step #3. If so, you can proceed to steps 7, 8 and 9. There

are several additional steps in ARIZ that provide more recommendations for resolving a contradiction.

Step #4.

Utilization of outside substances and field resources.

If the problem remains unclear, the “Small Miniature Man” model from Step #4 is imaginatively applied in order to better understand the problem.

Step #5.

Utilization of informational data bank.

Consider solving the problem by applying Standards in conjunction with a database of physical effects.

Step #6.

Change or reformulate the problem.

If the problem has still not been solved, ARIZ recommends returning to the starting point and reformulating the problem in respect to the supersystem. This looping process can be done several times. The following steps apply once a solution has been found:

Step #7.

Analysis of the method that removed the Physical Contradiction.

The main goal of this step is to check out the quality of a solution: Has the Physical Contradiction been removed most ideally?

Step #8.

Utilization of found solution.

This step guides you through an analysis of effects the new system may have on adjacent systems. It also forces the search for applications to other technical problems.

Step #9.

Analysis of steps that lead to the solution.

This is a check point where the real process used to solve a problem is compared with that suggested by ARIZ. Deviations are analyzed for possible future use. Mastering the powerful TRIZ tools requires many hours of study, along with working many practice problems. We hope that other books in this series will help you accomplish this task.


Standards are structured rules for the synthesis and reconstruction of technical systems. Once understood and with some experience in their implementation, Standards can help combat many complex problems that regularly occur throughout industry with some common constraints.

Standards provide two functions:

  1. Standards help to improve an existing system or synthesize a new one.
  2. Standards are the most effective method for providing a graphical model of a problem. This is called Substance-Field (or Su-Field) modeling. The actual contradiction — occurs. In this area, two substances (elements) and a field (energy) must be present. Analysis of the Su-Field model helps determine changes necessary within the technical system in order to improve it.


Constraint - In order to improve a system, a certain substance should be introduced; however, its introduction is prohibited by conditions specific to the problem. Stirrer-molten steel


A factory produces a new type of steel. Different additives are placed into the mix and stirred into the molten steel. In order to prevent the blades of the mixer from melting away during the mixing process, the blades  must have a protective coating. However, this coating may pollute the mixture of molten steel. What can be done?


Elements of the existing System:                            SU-Field

Molten steel

Mixing container

Additive Intake

Blades that stir molten metal


S-Field modeling of a technical system is performed in the Operating Zone, the area where the core of the problem. The diagram above shows a graphical model of the molten steel mixer problem. S1 is the blade, S2 is the molten steel, and F2 is the thermal energy of the steel that melts blade S1. The wavy arrow represents a harmful interaction between the hot molten steel (S2) and the blade (S1). To protect the blade, a third substance, S3, must be introduced. In this case, S3 is a modification of S2. By providing cold (F3) to blade S1, a crust from the molten material will develop on the blade’s surface and protect it from melting.


Altshuller offered 76 Standards divided into five classes:

Class #1: Build or destroy an S-Field.

Class #2: Develop an S-Field.

Class #3: Transition from the base system to a supersystem or to the micro-level.

Class #4: Measure or detect anything within a technical system.

Class #5: Describes how to introduce substances or fields into the technical system.

Lines of Evolution

Altshuller established eight Patterns, or Lines, of Technical Systems Evolution:


1. Life cycle.

2. Dynamization.

3. Multiplication cycle. (Transition to Bi- or Poly- system)

4. Transition from macro to micro level.

5. Synchronization.

6. Scaling up or down

7. Uneven development of parts

8. Replacement of human (Automation)


Here are an explanation some of these patterns and a few examples:


The Pattern of Dynamization suggests that any technical system during its evolutionary process makes a transition from a rigid to a flexible structure. This transition can be summarized as follows: A solid system obtains one joint, then many joints, then the whole system becomes completely flexible. Dynamization also means that a ridged system may be divided into elements that can become moveable relative to each other.


1. The steering column of a car has a joint allowing adjustment of its vertical position.

2. An antenna becomes collapsible.

3. The landing gear of an airplane folds and retracts.

4. A good example of complete Dynamization is a screwdriver whose stem is made of two springs, one

inside the other, with opposite winding directions making it completely flexible.


The Pattern of Multiplication states that a technical system evolves first as a single system and then later

multiplies itself. When similar elements are added together, it is called a homogeneous system. This combination of elements acquires a whole new property.


Two boats attached through a single frame (a catamaran) become more stable than two separate boats.

Different elements added together form a heterogeneous system. Such a system provides more functions while occupying less space.


The pocketknife began its cycle with a single blade. Different types of blades were added, then scissors,

screwdriver, a file and so on. Another variation on the heterogeneous system involves the addition of an opposite function producing higher levels of innovation.


1. A pencil and eraser are joined together.

2. A tape recorder can both record and erase.

The Pattern of Multiplication usually ends with the rejection of all extra elements that belong to the heterogeneous system — driving the system back to a mono system and thus beginning a new cycle.


The Pattern of Transition to Micro level states that elements of a technical system during its lifetime have a tendency to decrease in size, eventually collapsing into the micro level (molecules and atoms).


1. A record playing device transitions from a mechanical needle (having mechanical contact with the surface grove of a record) into an optical system with a laser reading information on a digital disk.

2. A computer mouse has a ball that converts mechanical hand movement into an electrical signal.

The next generation of mouse is a touch plate, where the mechanical motion of a finger is transformed into an electrical signal.

40 Principles

The one of the tools used to overcome technical contradictions are called Principles. The 40 Principles are generic suggestions for performing an action to, and within, a technical system. Altshuller discovered these Principles during his investigation and synthesis of thousands of patents. These were some of the keys of how inventive people solved inventive problems independent of industry or science. By using these Principles individually and in combination, you have hundreds of combinations for solving technical contradictions and other problems.


For instance, Principle #1, Segmentation suggests finding a way to separate one element of a technical system into many small interconnected elements.


How can we prevent a nail from making a flat tire?


The Segmentation principle indicates we should separate all available internal space of the tire into many sections — hundreds, thousands, millions. . . .


The Periodic Action, Principle #10, means that a continuous action should be replaced with a periodic, or pulsating, action.


Watering a lawn with a continuous stream of water can damage the soil and cause a lot of water to run off and be wasted. A pulsating sprinkler (periodic action) system eliminates this problem.


For a complete list and description of the 40 Principles with explanation of how each of these Principles can be used, are offered in our book the 40 Principles: Extended Edition. The 40 Principles described in this book allow the development of numerous solution concepts for every technical problem — without introducing a compromise. Implementing a chosen concept still remains the work of an engineer.


Summary of the 40 Principals


1. Segmentation

a. Divide an object into independent parts.

b. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).

c. Increase the degree of an object’s segmentation.

2. Extraction (Extracting, Retrieving, Removing)

a. Extract the “disturbing” part or property from an object.

b. Extract only the necessary part or property from an object.

3. Local Quality

a. Transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure of an object or outside environment (action).

b. Different parts of an object should carry out different functions.

c. Each part of an object should be placed under conditions that are most favorable for its operation.

4. Asymmetry

a. Replace symmetrical form(s) with asymmetrical form(s).

b. If an object is already asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry.

5. Consolidation

a. Consolidate in space homogeneous objects, or objects destined for contiguous operations.

b. Consolidate in time homogeneous or contiguous operations.

6. Universality

a. An object can perform several different functions; therefore, other elements can be removed.

7. Nesting (Matrioshka)

a. One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on . . .

b. An object passes through a cavity in another object.

8. Counterweight

a. Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.

b. Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.

9. Prior Counteraction

a. Preload countertension to an object to compensate excessive and undesirable stress.

10. Prior Action

a. Perform required changes to an object completely or partially in advance.

b. Place objects in advance so that they can go into action immediately from the most convenient location.

11. Cushion in Advance

a. Compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object with emergency measures prepared in advance.

12. Equipotentiality

a. Change the condition of the work in such a way that it will not require lifting or lowering an object.

13. Do It in Reverse

a. Instead of the direct action dictated by a problem, implement an opposite action (i.e., cooling instead of heating).

b. Make the movable part of an object, or outside environment, stationary — and stationary part moveable.

c. Turn an object upside-down.

14. Spheroidality

a. Replace linear parts with curved parts, flat surfaces with spherical surfaces, and cube shapes with ball shapes.

b. Use rollers, balls, spirals.

c. Replace linear motion with rotational motion; utilize centrifugal force.

15. Dynamicity

a. Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.

b. If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.

c. Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.

16. Partial or Excessive Action

a. If it is difficult to obtain 100% of a desired effect, achieve more or less of the desired effect.

17. Transition Into a New Dimension

a. Transition one-dimensional movement, or placement, of objects into two-dimensional; two-dimensional to three-dimensional, etc.

b. Utilize multi-level composition of objects.

c. Incline an object, or place it on its side.

d. Utilize the opposite side of a given surface.

e. Project optical lines onto neighboring areas, or onto the reverse side, of an object.

18. Mechanical Vibration

a. Utilize oscillation.

b. If oscillation exists, increase its frequency to ultrasonic.

c. Use the frequency of resonance.

d. Replace mechanical vibrations with piezovibrations.

e. Use ultrasonic vibrations in conjunction with an electromagnetic field.

19. Periodic Action

a. Replace a continuous action with a periodic one (impulse).

b. If the action is already periodic, change its frequency.

c. Use pauses between impulses to provide additional action.

20. Continuity of Useful Action

a. Carry out an action without a break. All parts of the object should constantly operate at full capacity.

b. Remove idle and intermediate motion.

c. Replace “back-and-forth” motion with a rotating one.

21. Rushing Through

a. Perform harmful and hazardous operations at a very high speed.

22. Convert Harm Into Benefit

a. Utilize harmful factors — especially environmental — to obtain a positive effect.

b. Remove one harmful factor by combining it with another harmful factor.

c. Increase the degree of harmful action to such an extent that it ceases to be harmful.

23. Feedback

a. Introduce feedback.

b. If feedback already exists, change it.

24. Mediator

a. Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.

b. Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.

25. Self-service

a. An object must service itself and carry out supplementary and repair operations.

b. Make use of waste material and energy.

26. Copying

a. A simplified and inexpensive copy should be used in place of a fragile original or an object that is inconvenient to operate.

b. If a visible optical copy is used, replace it with an infrared or ultraviolet copies.

c. Replace an object (or system of objects) with their optical image. The image can then be reduced or enlarged.

27. Dispose

a. Replace an expensive object with a cheap one, compromising other properties (i.e., longevity).

28. Replacement of Mechanical System

a. Replace a mechanical system with an optical, acoustical, thermal or olfactory system.

b. Use an electric, magnetic or electromagnetic field to interact with an object.

c. Replace fields that are:

1. Stationary with mobile.

2. Fixed with changing in time.

3. Random with structured.

d. Use fields in conjunction with ferromagnetic

29. Pneumatic or Hydraulic Constructions

a. Replace solid parts of an object with a gas or liquid. These parts can now use air or water for inflation, or use pneumatic or hydrostatic cushions.

30. Flexible Membranes or Thin Films

a. Replace customary constructions with flexible membranes or thin film.

b. Isolate an object from its outside environment with flexible membranes or thin films.

31. Porous Material

a. Make an object porous, or use supplementary porous elements (inserts, covers, etc.).

b. If an object is already porous, fill pores in advance with some substance.

32. Changing the Color

a. Change the color of an object or its environment.

b. Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.

c. Use color additives to observe an object, or process which is difficult to see.

d. If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.

33. Homogeneity

a. Objects interacting with the main object should be made out of the same material (or material with similar properties) as the main object.

34. Rejecting and Regenerating Parts

a. After completing its function, or becoming useless, an element of an object is rejected (discarded, dissolved, evaporated, etc.) or modified during its work process.

b. Used-up parts of an object should be restored during its work.

35. Transformation of Properties

a. Change the physical state of the system.

b. Change the concentration or density.

c. Change the degree of flexibility.

d. Change the temperature or volume.

36. Phase Transition

a. Using the phenomena of phase change (i.e., a change in volume, the liberation or absorption of heat, etc.).

37. Thermal Expansion

a. Use expansion or contraction of material by changing its temperature.

b. Use various materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.

38. Accelerated Oxidation

a. Make transition from one level of oxidation to the next higher level:

1. Ambient air to oxygenated.

2. Oxygenated to oxygen.

3. Oxygen to ionized oxygen.

4. Ionized oxygen to ozoned oxygen.

5. Ozoned oxygen to ozone.

6. Ozone to singlet oxygen.

39. Inert Environment

a. Replace a normal environment with an inert one.

b. Introduce a neutral substance or additives into an object.

c. Carry out the process in a vacuum.

40. Composite Materials

a. Replace homogeneous materials with composite ones.



As mentioned before, the most effective solutions are achieved when an inventor solves a technical problem that contains a contradiction. When and where does a contradiction occur? It occurs when we are trying to improve one characteristic, or parameter, of a technical system and cause another characteristic, or parameter, of the system to deteriorate. A compromise solution is then usually considered. A technical system has several characteristics (parameters) — weight, size, color, speed, rigidity, and so on. These characteristics describe the physical state of a technical system. When solving technical problems, these

characteristics help determine the technical contradiction residing in the system.


Increasing the power of an engine (positive improvement) requires an increase in the size of the engine (negative effect). So, an inventor considers increasing the power partially in order to reduce the negative effect (compromise solution). To increase the speed of an airplane, a new and more powerful engine is installed. This increases the weight of the airplane so the wings can no longer support it during takeoff. Increasing the wing size produces more drag, slowing the airplane down. These are some examples of how improvements can produce contradictions. The improvement goals were never fully achieved because the root technical contradictions were never resolved. These are called technical contradictions because they happen inside of technical systems. The 40 Principles are used to resolve technical contradictions.


There is another type of contradiction — physical contradiction — appearing when two opposite properties are required from the same element of a technical system or from the technical system itself. There are different methods for resolving physical contradictions (separation of contradictory requirements in time or space, changing the physical state of a substance, separation upon condition).


1. Landing gear must be present on an airplane in order to land and takeoff. It should not be present during flight because of an increase in air drag. The physical contradiction is that the landing gear must be both present and absent. This contradiction is resolved by separating the requirements in time — make the landing gear retractable.

2. For high water diving, water must be “hard” to support the diver and “soft” so as not to injure the diver. The physical contradiction: The water must be hard and soft at the same time. This contradiction is resolved by separating the requirements in space: Saturate the water with air bubbles — the pool contains both air and water.